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  1. page home edited Kottu Roti {6298116355_53ea369f84_o.jpg} Figure 1. A plate of cheese kottu ... India (Wikipedia…
    Kottu Roti
    {6298116355_53ea369f84_o.jpg} Figure 1. A plate of cheese kottu
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    India (Wikipedia, 2012).Its2012). Its exact place
    Preparation
    {f2.jpg} Figure 2. The ingredients in Kottu Roti
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    water (Silva, 2011)..2011). The mixture
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    times and finallyfinally, fried (Silva,
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    in Figure 3 (A. Ashraf, personal communication, April 18, 2012).3. The banging
    Kottu in the modern context {6739086825_334f1ba589_b.jpg} Figure 4. Pilawoos
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    multicultural food in Sri Lanka (S. Sulaiman,
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    13, 2012). NewCurrent social trends
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    include song compositioncompositions about this
    Health Implications of kottu
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    from the night before,previous night, as vendors
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    foreigners visiting roadsideroad-side stalls, the
    The nutrient values of kottu roti can vary significantly depending on whether it is prepared at home, or more commonly, bought as a takeout meal. Most notably is found to be high in saturated fat, sugars and sodium (The Nation, 2012a). A concerning issue is the heavy use of coconut milk and oil in the making of street kottu, which contains high levels of saturated fat, increasing total blood cholesterol in the body, irrespective of age (The Nation, 2012a). While the WHO (2005) recommends consuming coconut oil in moderation, research on this issue is controversial; some studies conducted in countries with high coconut oil consumption claim it is not a major risk factor for heart disease (Atukorale, 2009). Regardless, coconut oil is used in preference to soya, corn and other types of unsaturated oils as its anti-oxidising properties make it re-usable and therefore less expensive for street vendors (Atukorale, 2009; D. Cooray, personal communication, May 11, 2012).
    This is a significant health issue as transitions in food preferences towards convenience foods parallel the rise in diet-related chronic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, and heart disease (WHO/ SEARO, 2007). Cardiovascular disease accounts for 30% of total mortality and diabetes a further 4% in Sri Lanka (WHO, 2011). Risk factors include raised blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol and being overweight or obese (WHO, 2011). These determinants are all linked to the eating of unhealthy street foods such as kottu (WHO/ SEARO, 2007).
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    Silva, P. (2011). The Real Taste of Paradise From Sri Lanka (1st ed.). Colombo, Sri Lanka; EMAGEWISE
    Sunday Observer (2012).Hygienically made koththu roti. Retrieved from http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2012/02/26/jun02.asp
    ...
    Retrieved from
    http://www.nation.lk/edition/todays-news/item/2424-kottu-roti-and-parata-cause-early-deaths.html
    http://www.nation.lk/edition/todays-news/item/2424-kottu-roti-and-parata-cause-early-deaths.html
    The Nation (2012b). CMC to certify Kottu Roti vendors. Retrieved from http://www.nation.lk/edition/todays-news/item/2614-cmc-to-certify-kottu-roti-vendors.html
    Wikipedia (2012).Kottu.(2012). Kottu. Retrieved from
    World Health Organization (2002).Globalization, Diets and Noncommunicable Diseases. Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/9241590416.pdf
    World Health Organization. (2005). Avoiding Heart Attacks and Strokes. Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2005/9241546727.pdf
    (view changes)
    3:40 pm
  2. page home edited Kottu Roti {6298116355_53ea369f84_o.jpg} Figure 1. A plate of cheese kottu ... translates to “…
    Kottu Roti
    {6298116355_53ea369f84_o.jpg} Figure 1. A plate of cheese kottu
    ...
    translates to “Chopped“chopped roti” in
    ...
    with vegetables, eggs, oreggs and/or meat and
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    is usually provided.provided (Kottu, n.d) . Many different
    Preparation
    {f2.jpg} Figure 2. The ingredients in Kottu Roti
    ...
    Kottu roti is then prepared on a heated iron sheet, covered with oil. Red onions, garlic, ginger, salt, tomatoes and a variety of spices which may include curry leaves, chilli powder, curry powder, capsicum, red and green chillies, green and black peppers, coriander leaves and mustard seeds are added and fried until fragrant and the onions turn brown (Silva, 2011; Figure 2). Next, beaten eggs are poured in and scrambled. Finally, vegetables (mushrooms, cabbage, leeks, spring onions, etc.) and/or meats are added (Silva, 2011). These ingredients are chopped and mixed using two metal cleavers with wooden handles attached to their ends joints, as shown in Figure 3 (A. Ashraf, personal communication, April 18, 2012). The banging of these blades against the iron sheet produces a characteristic drumming sound, the beat of which is used to entice customers to road-side eating joints (A. Ashraf, personal communication, April 18, 2012). Chefs in restaurants with open cooking areas also engage in creating music with the blades to amuse customers, particularly tourists (A. Ashraf, personal communication, April 18, 2012).
    Kottu in the modern context {6739086825_334f1ba589_b.jpg} Figure 4. Pilawoos
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    force and late nightlate-night shift work
    ...
    (2007) reports an increasing trenda rise in the
    {508413_original.jpg} Figure 5. Kottu in popular cultureA meal which initially appeared as common street food for the poor and middle class has flourished, effectively surpassing social barriers in Sri Lanka (Sivanathan, N, personal communication, May 13, 2012). Kottu was formerly an inexpensive, takeaway meal for the lower classes but has now become a popular, almost essential part of the diet for the wealthy, in particular upper-class youth (Sivanathan, N, personal communication, May 13, 2012). New social trends among young people who go to nightclubs and parties in urban areas consider it customary to complete their nights with kottu as a midnight "hangover" meal. (P. Kurrupu, personal communication, May 12, 2012). As shown in Figure 4, a famous eating joint in Colombo, “Pilawoos”, is a popular place for wealthy youth to stop by. Considered socially unacceptable to frequent such places during the day or in person, waiters bring food to parked cars.
    ...
    for multiculturalism. For example, many songs have been composedExamples include song composition about this
    ...
    in Figure 5.5, worn by youth. (Meyler, 2007;
    Health Implications of kottu
    ...
    survey even reportingoverreporting over 95% of
    The nutrient values of kottu roti can vary significantly depending on whether it is prepared at home, or more commonly, bought as a takeout meal. Most notably is found to be high in saturated fat, sugars and sodium (The Nation, 2012a). A concerning issue is the heavy use of coconut milk and oil in the making of street kottu, which contains high levels of saturated fat, increasing total blood cholesterol in the body, irrespective of age (The Nation, 2012a). While the WHO (2005) recommends consuming coconut oil in moderation, research on this issue is controversial; some studies conducted in countries with high coconut oil consumption claim it is not a major risk factor for heart disease (Atukorale, 2009). Regardless, coconut oil is used in preference to soya, corn and other types of unsaturated oils as its anti-oxidising properties make it re-usable and therefore less expensive for street vendors (Atukorale, 2009; D. Cooray, personal communication, May 11, 2012).
    ...
    (WHO/ SEARO, 2007).Cardiovascular2007). Cardiovascular disease accounts
    ...
    such as kottu.kottu (WHO/ SEARO, 2007).
    “Healthy” Kottu {z_ZEST-p17-helalthy01.jpg} Figure 7. Local ingredients on display at the "Healthy Kottu Festival" in Mount Lavinia
    Attempts to maintain the dish’s popularity as well as address its health concerns include initiatives such as the “Healthy Kottu Festival” and “Kottu Fest” in Colombo (Peiris, 2008). These events promote healthier, innovative recipes, such as the use of local maize rather than wheat flour in godamba roti and baking the roti, rather than frying it (Silva, 2011). Moreover, as shown in Figure 7, they include local organic vegetables and fruits (jackfruit, bananas, bread fruit , lotus yam, corn, etc) in an effort to fuse traditional ingredients with the modern dish, to provide a healthier meal (Silva, 2011).
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    context they were created and now exist in.
    References
    Atukorale, D.P. (2009, April 4). Truth about coconut oil. The Sunday Observer. Retrieved from http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2009/04/19/rev15.asp
    (view changes)
    3:32 am
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  5. page home edited ... Preparation {f2.jpg} Figure 2. The ingredients in Kottu Roti ... (Silva, 2011). {f3.jpg}…
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    Preparation
    {f2.jpg} Figure 2. The ingredients in Kottu Roti
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    (Silva, 2011).
    {f3.jpg}
    {f3.jpg} Figure 3.
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    Negombo, Sri LankaKottuLanka
    Kottu
    roti is
    Kottu in the modern context {6739086825_334f1ba589_b.jpg} Figure 4. Pilawoos
    Kottu roti is a recent cultural creation and an example multicultural food (S. Sulaiman, personal communication, May 12, 2012). The dish has rapidly become a famed night-time meal, commonly provided at parties and non-religious festivals (S. Sulaiman, personal communication, May 12, 2012). Changes in working culture and lifestyles in urban settings, such as the increase in women in the labour force and late night shift work are factors associated with changing food habits towards convenience foods in South Asia (World Health Organization South-East Asia Regional Office [WHO/ SEARO], 2007). The WHO/ SEARO (2007) reports an increasing trend in the consumption of takeaway dinners and accordingly, a decrease in home-cooked meals over the past decade in Sri Lanka. Despite the growing presence of Western fast food chains such as McDonalds, Pizza Hut and KFC that are accommodating local cuisine to cater to local tastes and compete with street vendors (WHO, 2002) kottu roti is not a dish that is offered on any of their menus. Furthermore, road-side stalls are more abundant in numbers, open past midnight and consequently, more easily accessible (S. Hettige, personal communication, May 3, 2012).
    (view changes)
    3:13 am
  6. page home edited ... Preparation {f2.jpg} Figure 2. The ingredients in Kottu Roti ... (Silva, 2011). {f3.jpg} …
    ...
    Preparation
    {f2.jpg} Figure 2. The ingredients in Kottu Roti
    ...
    (Silva, 2011). {f3.jpg}
    {f3.jpg}
    Figure 3.
    ...
    Negombo, Sri Lanka
    Kottu
    LankaKottu roti is
    Kottu in the modern context {6739086825_334f1ba589_b.jpg} Figure 4. Pilawoos
    Kottu roti is a recent cultural creation and an example multicultural food (S. Sulaiman, personal communication, May 12, 2012). The dish has rapidly become a famed night-time meal, commonly provided at parties and non-religious festivals (S. Sulaiman, personal communication, May 12, 2012). Changes in working culture and lifestyles in urban settings, such as the increase in women in the labour force and late night shift work are factors associated with changing food habits towards convenience foods in South Asia (World Health Organization South-East Asia Regional Office [WHO/ SEARO], 2007). The WHO/ SEARO (2007) reports an increasing trend in the consumption of takeaway dinners and accordingly, a decrease in home-cooked meals over the past decade in Sri Lanka. Despite the growing presence of Western fast food chains such as McDonalds, Pizza Hut and KFC that are accommodating local cuisine to cater to local tastes and compete with street vendors (WHO, 2002) kottu roti is not a dish that is offered on any of their menus. Furthermore, road-side stalls are more abundant in numbers, open past midnight and consequently, more easily accessible (S. Hettige, personal communication, May 3, 2012).
    (view changes)
    3:13 am
  7. page home edited ... Preparation {f2.jpg} Figure 2. The ingredients in Kottu Roti ... (Silva, 2011). {f3.jpg}…
    ...
    Preparation
    {f2.jpg} Figure 2. The ingredients in Kottu Roti
    ...
    (Silva, 2011).
    {f3.jpg}
    {f3.jpg} Figure 3.
    Kottu roti is then prepared on a heated iron sheet, covered with oil. Red onions, garlic, ginger, salt, tomatoes and a variety of spices which may include curry leaves, chilli powder, curry powder, capsicum, red and green chillies, green and black peppers, coriander leaves and mustard seeds are added and fried until fragrant and the onions turn brown (Silva, 2011; Figure 2). Next, beaten eggs are poured in and scrambled. Finally, vegetables (mushrooms, cabbage, leeks, spring onions, etc.) and/or meats are added (Silva, 2011). These ingredients are chopped and mixed using two metal cleavers with wooden handles attached to their ends joints, as shown in Figure 3 (A. Ashraf, personal communication, April 18, 2012). The banging of these blades against the iron sheet produces a characteristic drumming sound, the beat of which is used to entice customers to road-side eating joints (A. Ashraf, personal communication, April 18, 2012). Chefs in restaurants with open cooking areas also engage in creating music with the blades to amuse customers, particularly tourists (A. Ashraf, personal communication, April 18, 2012).
    Kottu in the modern context {6739086825_334f1ba589_b.jpg} Figure 4. Pilawoos
    (view changes)
    3:11 am
  8. 3:10 am
  9. page home edited ... This is a significant health issue as transitions in food preferences towards convenience food…
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    This is a significant health issue as transitions in food preferences towards convenience foods parallel the rise in diet-related chronic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, and heart disease (WHO/ SEARO, 2007).Cardiovascular disease accounts for 30% of total mortality and diabetes a further 4% in Sri Lanka (WHO, 2011). Risk factors include raised blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol and being overweight or obese (WHO, 2011). These determinants are all linked to the eating of unhealthy street foods such as kottu.
    “Healthy” Kottu {z_ZEST-p17-helalthy01.jpg} Figure 7. Local ingredients on display at the "Healthy Kottu Festival" in Mount Lavinia
    ...
    Colombo (Peiris, 2008).These2008). These events promote
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    (Silva, 2011).
    In conclusion, kottu

    Kottu
    roti is
    References
    Atukorale, D.P. (2009, April 4). Truth about coconut oil. The Sunday Observer. Retrieved from http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2009/04/19/rev15.asp
    (view changes)
    3:10 am

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